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Pregnancy

      Iron supplements in pregnancy

      Brain food

      The importance of iron

      Iron is an important mineral to include in your pregnancy diet. It supports your baby’s developing brain and helps to maintain a healthy supply of oxygen in the blood1,2. Surprisingly, even though your body uses more iron than usual, your daily requirement for iron rich foods in pregnancy is the same as it was before. Learn how your body naturally compensates for the higher demand, and how to maintain a healthy intake.


      Iron helps to support:
      Normal cognitive development

      Iron helps to support:
      Immune system development

      Iron – building a healthy brain

      Iron is an important nutrient for pregnancy, with essential roles to play in your baby’s development and your own health.

      An adequate intake supports your baby’s rapidly developing brain, as well as their growing muscles1. Iron is also needed to make haemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carry oxygen around your body and to your baby2.

      Iron-rich foods in pregnancy

      During pregnancy, your body uses more iron than usual. This is partly due to your increased blood supply, with more iron required to create and maintain a greater volume of blood cells. Your baby’s demand for iron also rises as they grow.

      The Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI – the amount considered to be enough to meet most people’s needs) for women is 14.8mg per day.

      Added to this, your baby’s body starts accumulating iron stores in the third trimester of pregnancy, ready to support them during their first 6 months of life.

      Surprisingly, as long as you had good iron levels before conceiving, your recommended intake is the same as if you weren’t pregnant. This is because without the loss of blood through monthly periods, you retain more of your body’s iron stores. Your body also becomes more efficient at absorbing iron as pregnancy progresses – one of the amazing ways your body naturally adapts to the ever-changing demands of growing a new person1.

      During pregnancy, your body absorbs more iron from your food than usual

      Why it’s important to get enough

      A lack of iron can lead to iron deficiency anaemia, a condition where the blood doesn’t contain enough red blood cells for your body’s needs. Symptoms include some that are common to pregnancy, such as tiredness, a lack of energy, and breathlessness. It can also bring on the racing sensation of heart palpitations and leave you looking pale and washed out. The immune system can also be affected, leaving you more vulnerable to infection and illness3.

      Maintaining healthy iron levels during pregnancy means you’re less likely to become anaemic4, in turn lowering the possible risks of premature birth, a low birth weight5 and low iron levels in your baby6.

      The iron found in animal products is called haem iron, and is more easily absorbed than the non-haem iron provided by plant sources

      Your midwife will check your iron levels regularly. They may suggest taking an iron supplement during pregnancy if your levels run low, and if you do develop anaemia, they will help you manage the condition to keep you and your baby healthy.

      Iron in your pregnancy diet

      Iron is present in a variety of foods. The iron found in animal products is called haem iron, and is more easily absorbed than the non-haem iron provided by plant sources.

      Vegetarian diets may provide less haem-iron, so if you eat little or no meat, be sure to let your midwife know.

      Iron in pregnancy

      Even though your body uses more iron than usual, your daily requirement from food is the same as it was before pregnancy.

      Include the following iron sources as part of your balanced pregnancy diet to ensure an adequate intake:

      • Meat, including red meat and poultry
      • Fish
      • Pulses
      • Nuts
      • Wholegrains
      • Dark, leafy vegetables
      • Eggs
      • Dried fruit
      • Fortified breakfast cereals

      Interestingly, the cookware you use may affect the iron content of your food. Some research suggests that using cast iron pots and pans can help to increase your iron intake1.

      A little extra help from vitamin C7

      Vitamin C helps your body to get the less-easily absorbed non-haem iron. So when eating iron-rich plant-based food, up your intake by having a glass of orange juice or a piece of citrus fruit with it or for dessert.

      This is especially relevant if you follow a vegetarian diet, which misses out on the more absorbable haem iron found in meat and fish.

      It is also important to note that the tannins in tea and coffee can reduce the absorption of iron. So if you enjoy a hot drink after a meal, try choosing a pregnancy-safe fruit tea instead. Take care to limit your intake of chamomile and peppermint teas as these can contain polyphenolic compounds (such as tannins) which can inhibit iron absorption8.

      NEXT STEPS

      Add the following iron rich foods to your shopping list during pregnancy1:

      • Beef, lamb, pork and chicken
      • Spinach, kale and broccoli
      • Chickpeas and lentils
      • Pilchards and sardines
      • Apricots, prunes and raisins

      1. British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition and development, short and long-term consequences for health. London: Wiley Blackwell, 2013. (1a:155; 1b: 61; 1c:322; 1d:322)

      2. NHS UK. Iron [Online]. 2012. Available at: www.nhs.uk/Conditions/vitamins-minerals/Pages/Iron.aspx[Accessed June 2014]

      3. NHS UK. Iron deficiency anaemia – complications [Online]. 2014. Available at: www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Anaemia-iron-deficiency-/Pages/Complications.aspx [Accessed June 2014]

      4. Pena-Rosas JP, Viteri FE. Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+ folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4, 2009:CD004736.

      5. Alwan NA et al. Dietary iron intake during early pregnancy and birth outcomes in a cohort of British women. Hum Reprod 2011;26(4):911-919.

      6. Kilbride J et al. Anaemia during pregnancy as a risk factor for iron-deficiency anaemia in infancy: a case-control study in Jordan. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28(3):461-468.

      7. Cook JD, Monsen ER. Vitamin C, the common cold, and iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30(2):235-241.

      8. Hurrell RF et al. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr 1999;81(04):289-295.

      Last reviewed: 18th August 2014

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      Your baby's future health begins here

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