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      Baby nutrition and immune systems

      mother kissing baby

      Baby nutrition and immune systems

      Adequate nutrition during the first few years of life is crucial for healthy growth and future development. We know the benefits of having a balanced diet and the importance of not consuming too much sugar or salt1, but when it comes to supporting the immune system, specific vitamins, minerals and prebiotics may play an essential role2.

      How to boost a baby’s immune system

      What are the nutritional needs of babies?

      Breastfeeding gives your baby the best start in life and offers many benefits, including supporting your immune system development3,4. Read more about the natural brilliance of breastmilk.

      For their first 12 months, breastmilk or formula milk will provide most of the nutrients your baby will need for growth5 including carbohydrates, fat and protein as well as compounds that will benefit your child’s immune system, such as vitamins, minerals and prebiotics6.

      From 6 months, nutrient-rich foods can be incorporated into your baby’s diet and these play a key role in topping up essential vitamins and minerals as well as helping to strengthen your baby’s own defences7.

      Read more to learn which nutrients are important to include in your baby’s weaning diet and which foods are the best sources.

      Baby nutrition for a healthy future

      It's no accident that your baby’s hunger for solid foods coincides with their ability to sit up and enjoy a more independent view of the world. During the weaning stage, your baby becomes stronger, learns new ways to express their wants and needs, and continues to grow at a rapid rate8. Weaning foods not only top up some essential nutrients for your baby but also help them to explore different tastes and textures, learn to chew, and strengthen the muscles that are important for speech while developing healthy habits from early on 9,10,11,12.

      Providing a variety of wholesome, nutritious weaning foods will fuel your baby’s learning and development into toddlerhood and support their health throughout life12.

      Making the most of the nutrients in fresh foods

      Certain foods are easy to mash or purée when raw: bananas, avocados and mango are nutrient-rich examples. Others need to be cooked before puréeing, and the best ways to prepare them to preserve their vitamin content varies between vegetables, for example steaming is best for broccoli13. Offering a rainbow of colours will help to ensure your baby receives a wide range of vitamins and minerals14. Read more about making baby food.

      Essential nutrients for your baby’s development

      Vitamin D for Babies

      Vitamin D plays a part in the normal functioning of your child’s immune system, which is your child´s defence against infections. It is also needed to aid the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, two minerals that help to form the strong healthy bones and teeth that will support your baby throughout life15.



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      Sometimes called the sunshine vitamin, the most efficient source of vitamin D is UVB rays: the body generates it in response to sunlight on the skin. However, the latitude of the UK means that we only get effective sunlight in the summer months, and our unpredictable weather makes this an even less reliable source15. The use of sunscreen also blocks any ability to produce vitamin D from sunlight, meaning children are often entirely dependent on dietary sources and supplements.

      Food sources of vitamin D are limited and include16:

      • Oily fish – herring, salmon, sardines and mackerel
      • Eggs
      • Fortified fat spreads
      • Fortified breakfast cereals

      It is difficult to get the recommended intake of vitamin D from foods alone. Because of this, the Department of Health advises a daily vitamin D supplement of 8.5-10 micrograms (0.0085-0.01mg) for all babies up to one year, and 10 micrograms (0.01mg) for all children ages one to four years17.

      Formula-fed babies don’t need vitamin D supplements until they are drinking less than 500ml of formula per day, usually at around 12 months old, because most infant milks are fortified with vitamin D17.

      Iron rich foods for babies

      Iron, a mineral found in high levels in meats, beans, dried fruits and fortified breakfast cereals, supports your baby’s physical and mental development. This early development lays the foundations for all development yet to come, which is why iron is such an important nutrient to include in your baby’s weaning diet18.



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      Your baby was born with a store of iron, which was built up in the womb, mostly during the third trimester of pregnancy19. After 6 months this store starts to run low, so iron-rich foods are an essential part of a healthy weaning diet, to provide enough to meet your baby’s growing needs

      "An adequate intake of iron supports the rapid brain development that is happening at this stage18"

      Too little iron can lead to iron deficiency anaemia – a condition that can affect your baby’s immune response. Premature babies may be at increased risk of this due to missing out on iron stores that normally build up during the later stages of pregnancy19,20.

      Iron comes in two forms. Haem-iron is found in meat and fish and is easily absorbed by the body. Non-haem iron is present in plant foods and is harder for the body to absorb and use. Even small amounts of meat and fish in your baby’s diet can help them to absorb the iron from other food sources21.

      Include the following iron-rich foods in your baby’s weaning diet to increase their intake21:

      • Meats and oily fish, such as sardines and salmon
      • Dark green, leafy vegetables such as kale and spinach
      • Beans and other pulses
      • Dried fruit
      • Fortified breakfast cereals

      Vitamin C aids the absorption of iron from foods, particularly from plant sources, so when you can, include them in the same meal22. Beneficial combinations include beef stew with tomatoes and peppers; fortified porridge with lightly stewed berry fruits; bean and potato mash with sticks of steamed broccoli or carrots as finger foods; and sardines in tomato sauce.

      Foods high in zinc for babies23

      Zinc is a mineral found in all cells throughout the body. It helps the immune system to fight off invading bacteria and viruses by creating new cells and enzymes. It also plays role in healing scratches and wounds.

      As with iron, once your baby reaches a certain age, they need complementary foods with zinc to meet their increased needs, so it is important to include good sources from the start of weaning.

      Good sources of zinc to increase your baby’s intake include:

      • Meat
      • Milk and cheese
      • Bread
      • Cereal products

      Calcium for babies

      Calcium is needed for the healthy development of your baby’s bones and teeth. This important nutrient helps to build your baby’s skeleton as they grow24.

      Most of your baby’s calcium intake comes from milk, whether they’re breastfeeding or formula feeding. Cows’ milk also contains calcium but isn’t suitable as a main drink for babies under 12 months old25.

      Other sources of calcium include24:

      • Milk, cheese and other dairy foods
      • Green, leafy vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage and okra, but not spinach
      • Soya beans and tofu
      • Nuts – can be introduced if finely ground
      • Bread and anything made with fortified flour
      • Oily types of fish where you eat the bones, such as sardines and pilchards (check for any larger pieces of bones)

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      Potassium and selenium for babies

      Potassium is involved in controlling the balance of fluids in the body and is important in bone and heart health26. Selenium has important antioxidant properties and plays a role in supporting the immune system27.

      Potassium is found in most types of food. Good sources of potassium that are suitable for your baby include26:

      • Fruit and vegetables
      • Beans and pulses
      • Nuts, if finely ground
      • Milk
      • Meat and fish
      • Bread

      Good sources of selenium include28:

      • Brazil nuts, if finely ground
      • Meat and fish
      • Eggs

      Vitamin B12 for babies29

      One of the B-group of vitamins, B12 supports development of your baby’s nervous system and it is important that they have a reliable, steady supply. It is also involved in making red blood cells as your baby grows, as well as releasing energy from food.

      Good sources of this nutrient for your baby include:

      • Meat
      • Salmon and cod
      • Milk and cheese
      • Eggs
      • Some fortified cereals – check the labels to make sure they have been fortified

      "As most of the sources are animal-based, you may be advised to supplement your baby’s nutrition if their weaning diet is mostly or completely vegetarian. If you are unsure, speak to your health visitor or doctor for advice30."

      Omega 3 for babies31

      Omega 3 is a type of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) that contributes to the development of your baby’s brain as well as their normal visual development.

      Oily fish, such as sardines, pilchards or salmon, are an excellent source of Omega 3 and can be offered as part of your baby’s weaning diet once or twice each week.  

      In terms of foods, non-fish sources of Omega 3 fats are thought to be less effective compared to fish, but they still have some benefit. These include:

      • Fortified eggs
      • Fortified fat spreads
      • Fortified breads
      • Linseed, walnut and rapeseed oils

      Next steps

      To help increase your baby’s vitamin D intake while weaning, consider:

      • Giving them vitamin D supplements, (unless they are drinking more than 500ml infant formula a day)17

      Add these vitamin-rich foods to your baby’s weaning list:

      • Oily fish – salmon, sardines or mackerel
      • Kale, spinach and broccoli
      • Hummus
      • Chicken and lean red meat
      • Eggs fortified with Omega 3
      • Bananas, pears and mango
      • Fortified milk or cereal
      1. Bournez M, et al. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):733.
      2. Agostoni, C., et al. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2009;49(1):112-125.
      3. Jackson KM, Nazar AM. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2006;106(4):203–207.
      4. U Pai, Chandrasekhar P, Carvalho R, Kumar S. Clin Epidemiol Glob Health. 2018;6(4):155-159.
      5. Martin C., Pei-Ra L., Blackburn G. Nutrients 2016;8(5):279.
      6. Triantis V, Bode L, van Neerven R. Front Pediatr. 2018;6:190.
      7. Al Nabhani, Z et al. Immunity. 2019;50(5):1276‐1288.e5.
      8. Vail, B. et al. J Pediatr. 2015;167(2):317‐24.e1.
      9. Breen FM, Plomin R, Wardle J. Physiol Behav. 2006;88:443–447
      10. Wilson EM, Green JR. Early Hum Dev. 2009;85(5):303–11
      11. Vieira, Victor et al, Revista CEFAC, 2016;18(6):1359-1369.
      12. Georgieff M, Cusick S. 2020. The first 1,000 days of life: The brain’s window of opportunity. UNICEF. [Online] Accessed June 1, 2020. Available at :
      13. Yuan GF, Sun B, Yuan J, Wang QM.. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2009;10(8):580‐588.
      14. Aburrow A. 2020. Should you eat a rainbow of fruits and vegetables?. [Online] Accessed June 1, 2020. Available at :
      15. Nair, R., and Maseeh, A. J Pharmacol Pharmacother, 2012;3(2):118–126.
      16. Cunningham, D., et al. Nutrients,2017;9(7):647.
      17. nhs 2020. Vitamins for children. [Online]. Accessed June 1, 2020. Available at :
      18. Finn, K., et al. Nutrients, 2017;9(7):733.
      19. O'Brien, K., et al. Am J Clin Nutr,2003;77(4):924–930.
      20. Hassan, T. H., et al. Medicine, 2016;95(47)e5395
      21. Finnamore H, et al. Brit J Gen Pract, 2014;64(621):172-173.
      22. Hallberg L, Brune M, Rossander L. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1989(Suppl);30:103‐108.
      23. Roohani N, Hurrell R, Kelishadi R, Schulin R. J Res Med Sci. 2013;18(2):144‐157.
      24. Ross A, Taylor C, Yaktine A, Cook H. Dietary Reference Intakes For Calcium And Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011.
      25. Agostoni C, Turck D. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;53(6):594‐600.
      26. Weaver C. Adv Nutr. 2013;4(3):368S-377S.
      27. Arthur, J., McKenzie, R., Beckett, G. J Nutr, 2003;133(5):1457S–1459S
      28. Lombeck, I., et al. Eur J Pediatr, 1984;143:99–102
      29. Mahmood L. J Health Res Rev, 2014;1:5-9
      30. Nhs 2020. Vegetarian and vegan babies and children. [Online] Accessed June 2, 2020. Available at :
      31. European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies. Scientific opinion: DHA and ARA and visual development. EFSA Journal 2009;941:1-14

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