Skip to main content Help with accessibility

Iron supplements in pregnancy

Iron in pregnancy


The importance of iron

Iron is an important mineral to include in your pregnancy diet. It supports your baby’s developing brain and helps to maintain a healthy supply of oxygen in the blood1,2. Surprisingly, even though your body uses more iron than usual, your daily requirement for iron rich foods in pregnancy is the same as it was before. Learn how your body naturally compensates for the higher demand, and how to maintain a healthy intake.

Iron helps to support:
Normal cognitive development 

Iron helps to support:
Immune system development 

Iron – building a healthy brain

Iron is an important nutrient for pregnancy, with essential roles to play in your baby’s development and your own health.

An adequate intake supports your baby’s rapidly developing brain, as well as their growing muscles1. Iron is also needed to make haemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carry oxygen around your body and to your baby2.

“The Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI – the amount considered to be enough to meet most people’s needs) for women is 14.8mg per day.”

Iron rich foods in pregnancy

During pregnancy, your body uses more iron than usual. This is partly due to your increased blood supply, with more iron required to create and maintain a greater volume of blood cells. Your baby’s demand for iron also rises as they grow.

Added to this, your baby’s body starts accumulating iron stores in the third trimester of pregnancy, ready to support them during their first 6 months of life.

Surprisingly, as long as you had good iron levels before conceiving, your recommended intake is the same as if you weren’t pregnant. This is because without the loss of blood through monthly periods, you retain more of your body’s iron stores. Your body also becomes more efficient at absorbing iron as pregnancy progresses – one of the amazing ways your body naturally adapts to the ever-changing demands of growing a new person1.

During pregnancy, your body absorbs more iron from your food than usual.

Why it’s important to get enough

A lack of iron can lead to iron deficiency anaemia, a condition where the blood doesn’t contain enough red blood cells for your body’s needs. Symptoms include some that are common to pregnancy, such as tiredness, a lack of energy, and breathlessness. It can also bring on the racing sensation of heart palpitations and leave you looking pale and washed out. The immune system can also be affected, leaving you more vulnerable to infection and illness3.

Maintaining healthy iron levels during pregnancy means you’re less likely to become anaemic4, in turn lowering the possible risks of premature birth, a low birth weight5 and low iron levels in your baby6.

"The iron found in animal products is called haem iron, and is more easily absorbed than the non-haem iron provided by plant sources"

Your midwife will check your iron levels regularly. They may suggest taking an iron supplement during pregnancy if your levels run low, and if you do develop anaemia, they will help you manage the condition to keep you and your baby healthy.

Iron in your pregnancy diet

Iron is present in a variety of foods. The iron found in animal products is called haem iron, and is more easily absorbed than the non-haem iron provided by plant sources.

”Vegetarian diets may provide less haem-iron, so if you eat little or no meat, be sure to let your midwife know.”

Iron in pregnancy

Even though your body uses more iron than usual, your daily requirement from food is the same as it was before pregnancy.

Include the following iron sources as part of your balanced pregnancy diet to ensure an adequate intake:

  • Meat, including red meat and poultry
  • Fish
  • Pulses
  • Nuts
  • Wholegrains
  • Dark, leafy vegetables
  • Eggs
  • Dried fruit
  • Fortified breakfast cereals

Interestingly, the cookware you use may affect the iron content of your food. Some research suggests that using cast iron pots and pans can help to increase your iron intake1.

A little extra help from vitamin C7

Vitamin C helps your body to get the less-easily absorbed non-haem iron. So when eating iron-rich plant-based food, up your intake by having a glass of orange juice or a piece of citrus fruit with it or for dessert.

This is especially relevant if you follow a vegetarian diet, which misses out on the more absorbable haem iron found in meat and fish.

It is also important to note that the tannins in tea and coffee can reduce the absorption of iron. So if you enjoy a hot drink after a meal, try choosing a pregnancy-safe fruit tea instead. Take care to limit your intake of chamomile and peppermint teas as these can contain polyphenolic compounds (such as tannins) which can inhibit iron absorption8.

Next Steps

Add the following iron rich foods to your shopping list during pregnancy1:

  • Beef, lamb, pork and chicken
  • Spinach, kale and broccoli
  • Chickpeas and lentils
  • Pilchards and sardines
  • Apricots, prunes and raisins

View references

Hide references

drop down arrow

1. British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition and development, short and long-term consequences for health. London: Wiley Blackwell, 2013. (1a:155; 1b: 61; 1c:322; 1d:322)

2. NHS UK. Iron [Online]. 2012. Available at: [Accessed June 2014]

3. NHS UK. Iron deficiency anaemia – complications [Online]. 2014. Available at: [Accessed June 2014]

4. Pena-Rosas JP, Viteri FE. Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+ folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4, 2009:CD004736.

5. Alwan NA et al. Dietary iron intake during early pregnancy and birth outcomes in a cohort of British women. Hum Reprod 2011;26(4):911-919.

6. Kilbride J et al. Anaemia during pregnancy as a risk factor for iron-deficiency anaemia in infancy: a case-control study in Jordan. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28(3):461-468.

7. Cook JD, Monsen ER. Vitamin C, the common cold, and iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30(2):235-241.

8. Hurrell RF et al. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. Br J Nutr 1999;81(04):289-295.

Last reviewed: 18th August 2014
Prenatal vitamins & supplements supplements header

Vitamins & supplements for pregnancy

Is your supplement pregnancy-safe? Learn what to look for in prenatal vitamins and why food should be your main source of most nutrients.

Learn more
Vitamin C in pregnancy orange header

Vitamin C during pregnancy

Vitamin C helps to make collagen, a vital tissue in your baby’s growing body. Learn how much you need and which foods are the best sources.

Learn more
Care Team

For advice on foods to avoid in pregnancy, to preparing for your labour

Our expert team of midwives, nutritionists and feeding advisors are here to answer your questions. Just get in touch.
Call us on 0800 996 1000


Join Aptaclub on Facebook

Like our Facebook page to join the thousands of mums-to-be and new mums who are discussing and sharing their experiences.


Aptaclub on Instagram

Follow us on Instagram for educational, inspirational posts celebrating your pregnancy and parenting journey.

Understanding LCPs: Omega 3 and 6 fish header

Omega 3 & 6: Fatty Acids in Pregnancy

Omega 3 and 6 support your baby’s developing brain and heart. Read about the other benefits of these LCPs and how to get a healthy balance.

Learn more

Feel prepared with our free mobile app

Our free Preparing for Birth mobile app has practical tools & expert advice helping you feel prepared for the birth of your baby.

Superfoods for pregnancy blueberries header

Superfoods for pregnancy

Are superfoods really super? Learn what’s behind the name and which nutrient-dense foods are a healthy addition to your pregnancy diet.

Learn more
Pregnancy nutrients for a healthy future

Pregnancy nutrients for a healthy future

Your pregnancy diet has a profound impact on your baby’s health. Learn how some nutrients support your baby’s health long into the future.

Learn more

WhatsApp Welcome to Careline via WhatsApp

Our experts are available to chat Monday - Friday, 8am-8pm, excluding bank holidays.

By clicking start, you will open a new chat in your WhatsApp app with our Careline team.


Having trouble?

If you're having issues sending the Careline a message via WhatsApp, please try calling us on 0800 996 1000 instead.